Explain the cause of failure of Pakistan’s first Constitution 1956.
Pakistan took almost nine years after its independence to frame the first constitution. But, it took only two years to scrap that document. With the Martial Law enforced in 1958, the first sacred legal document was thrown out.
Causes of Failure of 1956-Constitution:
Lack of Leadership
The major reason for failure of constitution of 1956 was lack of political leadership. After death of Jinnah and Liaquat Ali, no sincere leader of international stature emerged on the political scenario of country.
Weak Political Parties
In those days there were no organized and disciplined political parties. All were very weak and were facing many sanctions. No party had absolute majority to form government. Political parties were made and dissolved within a night. There was no rule of floor crossing.
Non-effective Role of Political Parties
Working of democratic systems depends upon the mechanism of party politics. Political parties represent the public opinion but those days role of political parties was not effective. Political parties were not educating and making opinion of public.
Struggle for Power
Another cause for failure of 1956-constitution was struggle for power between the head of the state and legislature. We can say that President Iskandar Mirza continuously interfered in affairs of legislature.
After Feroz Khan Noon became PM, inflation went on its peak due to hoarding. This resulted in unfair distribution of wealth. Rich was getting richer and poor was getting poorer. So, we can say that socio-economic contradictions also played a role in failure of this constitution.
Dead lock on Electoral Issue
Dead lock on the issue of separate and joint election, between two provinces was also cause of failure of 1956-constitution. Framers of constitution of 1956 failed to resolve this issue.
I956-constitution introduced one house for legislation which also became a cause for failure of this constitution.
Curtailment of Provincial Autonomy
West-Pakistan was made after four provinces were merged into one unit. Due to this step autonomy of four provinces was curtailed. This also became a cause for failure of this constitution.
No Rule of Law
Another reason for failure of 1956-constitution was that, instead of rule of law there was rule of person in the country.
In those days, Muslims were migrating to Pakistan from various parts of India. Government was also busy in their rehabilitation and could not pay attention towards political and constitutional instability in country.
Hence, we can conclude that there were many reasons for failure of constitution of 1956. But the major cause is lack of leadership and policies of government. This constitution remained enforced for only two years.